What is known
What new studies show
Conclusion and Comments
1. Ng Tang Fui, M., P. Dupuis, and M. Grossmann, Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management. Asian J Androl, 2014. 16(2): p. 223-31.
2. Saad, F., et al., Testosterone as potential effective therapy in treatment of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency: a review. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2012. 8(2): p. 131-43.
3. Saad, F. and L.J. Gooren, The role of testosterone in the etiology and treatment of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2. J Obes, 2011. 2011.
4. Traish, A.M., Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2014. 21(5): p. 313-22.
5. Patham, B., D. Mukherjee, and Z.T. San Juan, Contemporary review of drugs used to treat obesity. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem, 2013. 11(4): p. 272-80.
6. Van Gaal, L.F., I.L. Mertens, and C.E. De Block, Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature, 2006. 444(7121): p. 875-80.
7. Hubert, H.B., et al., Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 1983. 67(5): p. 968-77.
8. Poirier, P., et al., Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation, 2006. 113(6): p. 898-918.
9. Chan, J.M., et al., Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care, 1994. 17(9): p. 961-9.
10. Sung, K.C., et al., Combined influence of insulin resistance, overweight/obesity, and fatty liver as risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2012. 35(4): p. 717-22.
11. Bhurosy, T. and R. Jeewon, Overweight and Obesity Epidemic in Developing Countries: A Problem with Diet, Physical Activity, or Socioeconomic Status? ScientificWorldJournal, 2014. 2014: p. 964236.
12. Colagiuri, S., Diabesity: therapeutic options. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2010. 12(6): p. 463-73.
13. Farag, Y.M. and M.R. Gaballa, Diabesity: an overview of a rising epidemic. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2011. 26(1): p. 28-35.
14. Kral, J.G., Diabesity: palliating, curing or preventing the dysmetabolic diathesis. Maturitas, 2014. 77(3): p. 243-8.
15. Wadden, T.A., et al., Lifestyle modification for obesity: new developments in diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy. Circulation, 2012. 125(9): p. 1157-70.
16. Wing, R.R. and S. Phelan, Long-term weight loss maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 82(1 Suppl): p. 222S-225S.
17. Rueda-Clausen, C.F., R.S. Padwal, and A.M. Sharma, New pharmacological approaches for obesity management. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2013. 9(8): p. 467-78.
18. Dobbs, R., et al., Overcoming obesity: An initial economic analysis http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/economic_studies/how_the_world_could_better_fight_obesity Accessed December 1, 2014.
19. Taubes, G., Treat obesity as physiology, not physics. Nature, 2012. 492(7428): p. 155.
20. Yeap, B.B., et al., Lower serum testosterone is independently associated with insulin resistance in non-diabetic older men: the Health In Men Study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2009. 161(4): p. 591-8.
21. Tajar, A., et al., Characteristics of androgen deficiency in late-onset hypogonadism: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012. 97(5): p. 1508-16.
22. Travison, T.G., et al., The relative contributions of aging, health, and lifestyle factors to serum testosterone decline in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 92(2): p. 549-55.
23. Camacho, E.M., et al., Age-associated changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in middle-aged and older men are modified by weight change and lifestyle factors: longitudinal results from the European Male Ageing Study. Eur J Endocrinol, 2013. 168(3): p. 445-55.
24. Haring, R., et al., Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of testosterone deficiency in a population-based cohort of men: results from the study of health in Pomerania. Aging Male, 2010. 13(4): p. 247-57.
25. Corona, G., et al., Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol, 2013. 168(6): p. 829-43.
26. Tsai, E.C., et al., Low serum testosterone level as a predictor of increased visceral fat in Japanese-American men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2000. 24(4): p. 485-91.
27. Finkelstein, J.S., et al., Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men. N Engl J Med, 2013. 369(11): p. 1011-22.
28. Hamilton, E.J., et al., Increase in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2011. 74(3): p. 377-83.
29. Haider, A., et al., Hypogonadal obese men with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 lose weight and show improvement in cardiovascular risk factors when treated with testosterone: An observational study. Obes Res Clin Pract, 2014. 8(4): p. e339-49.
30. Haider, A., et al., Effects of long-term testosterone therapy on patients with "diabesity": results of observational studies of pooled analyses in obese hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Int J Endocrinol, 2014. 2014: p. 683515.
31. Saad, F., et al., Long-term treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone produces substantial and sustained weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2013. 21(10): p. 1975-81.
32. Traish, A.M., et al., Long-term testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men ameliorates elements of the metabolic syndrome: an observational, long-term registry study. Int J Clin Pract, 2014. 68(3): p. 314-29.
33. Yassin, A. and G. Doros, Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss. Clin Obes, 2013. 3(3-4): p. 73-83.
34. Page, S.T., et al., Exogenous testosterone (T) alone or with finasteride increases physical performance, grip strength, and lean body mass in older men with low serum T. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005. 90(3): p. 1502-10.
35. Snyder, P.J., et al., Effect of testosterone treatment on body composition and muscle strength in men over 65 years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999. 84(8): p. 2647-53.
36. Kenny, A.M., et al., Effects of transdermal testosterone on bone and muscle in older men with low bioavailable testosterone levels. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2001. 56(5): p. M266-72.
37. Wittert, G.A., et al., Oral testosterone supplementation increases muscle and decreases fat mass in healthy elderly males with low-normal gonadal status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003. 58(7): p. 618-25.
38. Wang, C., et al., Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 85(8): p. 2839-53.
39. Sattler, F., et al., Testosterone Supplementation Improves Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Some Older Men with Abdominal Obesity. J Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2014. 3(3): p. 1000159.
40. Marin, P., et al., Androgen treatment of abdominally obese men. Obes Res, 1993. 1(4): p. 245-51.
41. Marin, P., et al., The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle-aged obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 1992. 16(12): p. 991-7.
42. Allan, C.A., et al., Testosterone therapy prevents gain in visceral adipose tissue and loss of skeletal muscle in nonobese aging men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93(1): p. 139-46.
43. Kelly, D.M. and T.H. Jones, Testosterone: a metabolic hormone in health and disease. J Endocrinol, 2013. 217(3): p. R25-45.
44. Frederiksen, L., et al., Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men. Age (Dordr), 2012. 34(1): p. 145-56.
45. Petersson, S.J., et al., Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone. Eur J Endocrinol, 2014. 171(1): p. 77-88.
46. Griggs, R.C., et al., Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. J Appl Physiol (1985), 1989. 66(1): p. 498-503.
47. Brodsky, I.G., P. Balagopal, and K.S. Nair, Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996. 81(10): p. 3469-75.
48. Grossmann, M., Low testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes: significance and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011. 96(8): p. 2341-53.
49. Pitteloud, N., et al., Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell testosterone secretion in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005. 90(5): p. 2636-41.
50. Mah, P.M. and G.A. Wittert, Obesity and testicular function. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2010. 316(2): p. 180-6.
51. Cohen, P.G., The hypogonadal-obesity cycle: role of aromatase in modulating the testosterone-estradiol shunt--a major factor in the genesis of morbid obesity. Med Hypotheses, 1999. 52(1): p. 49-51.
52. Saboor Aftab, S.A., S. Kumar, and T.M. Barber, The role of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the development of male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2013. 78(3): p. 330-7.
53. Janjgava, S., et al., Influence of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic disorders in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and androgen deficiency. Eur J Med Res, 2014. 19(1): p. 56.
54. Amanatkar, H.R., et al., Impact of exogenous testosterone on mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Ann Clin Psychiatry, 2014. 26(1): p. 19-32.
55. Spitzer, M., et al., The effect of testosterone on mood and well-being in men with erectile dysfunction in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Andrology, 2013. 1(3): p. 475-82.
56. Wang, C., et al., Testosterone replacement therapy improves mood in hypogonadal men--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996. 81(10): p. 3578-83.
57. Jockenhovel, F., et al., Comparison of long-acting testosterone undecanoate formulation versus testosterone enanthate on sexual function and mood in hypogonadal men. Eur J Endocrinol, 2009. 160(5): p. 815-9.
58. Jockenhovel, F., et al., Timetable of effects of testosterone administration to hypogonadal men on variables of sex and mood. Aging Male, 2009. 12(4): p. 113-8.
59. Kalinchenko, S.Y., et al., Effects of testosterone supplementation on markers of the metabolic syndrome and inflammation in hypogonadal men with the metabolic syndrome: the double-blinded placebo-controlled Moscow study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2010. 73(5): p. 602-12.
60. Heufelder, A.E., et al., Fifty-two-week treatment with diet and exercise plus transdermal testosterone reverses the metabolic syndrome and improves glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and subnormal plasma testosterone. J Androl, 2009. 30(6): p. 726-33.
61. Traish, A., B. Abdallah, and G. Yu, Androgen deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction: implications for fatigue, muscle dysfunction, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. . Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest 2011. 8: p. 431–444.
Medical Writer & Nutritionist
University of Stockholm & Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Baylor University, TX, USA
Latest from Monica
- Hematocrit (blood thickness) elevation following testosterone therapy – does it increase risk of blood clots?
- Is there a protective role of testosterone against high-grade prostate cancer?
- Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat, lean mass, symptoms and leptin resistance in obese men on a calorie-restricted diet
- Long-Term Testosterone Therapy Improves Cardiometabolic Function and Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Real-Life Results
- Exercise – much more than just a calorie burning tool
- 8 Diet Foods that Can Make You Gain Weight
- Considering CoolSculpting in Las Vegas? Here are 5 Things You Should Know
- 5 Signs Your Testosterone is Too Low
- 5 Ways to Naturally Boost Your Testosterone
- Hematocrit (blood thickness) elevation following testosterone therapy – does it increase risk of blood clots?