Role of Muscle in the Body’s Metabolism
Muscle and Insulin Resistance – how do your muscles protect you?
Insulin Resistance - things you didn’t know
Insulin – a vascular hormone
Negative effect of Insulin Resistance on Muscle – vicious circle
Role of Muscle in Chronic Disease
Resistance Exercise Training – building muscle is for everyone!
Muscle and Longevity – is there a relation?
1. Gallagher, D., et al., Organ-tissue mass measurement allows modeling of REE and metabolically active tissue mass. Am J Physiol, 1998. 275(2 Pt 1): p. E249-58.
2. Lenk, K., G. Schuler, and V. Adams, Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training. J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle, 2010. 1(1): p. 9-21.
3. Biolo, G., X.J. Zhang, and R.R. Wolfe, Role of membrane transport in interorgan amino acid flow between muscle and small intestine. Metabolism, 1995. 44(6): p. 719-24.
4. Felig, P., et al., Amino acid metabolism during prolonged starvation. J Clin Invest, 1969. 48(3): p. 584-94.
5. Matthews, D.E., Proteins and Amino Acids, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, M.E. Shils, et al., Editors. 2006.
6. Felig, P., The glucose-alanine cycle. Metabolism, 1973. 22(2): p. 179-207.
7. DeFronzo, R.A., R.C. Bonadonna, and E. Ferrannini, Pathogenesis of NIDDM. A balanced overview. Diabetes Care, 1992. 15(3): p. 318-68.
8. DeFronzo, R.A. and D. Tripathy, Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009. 32 Suppl 2: p. S157-63.
9. Abdul-Ghani, M.A. and R.A. DeFronzo, Pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. J Biomed Biotechnol, 2010. 2010: p. 476279.
10. Thiebaud, D., et al., The effect of graded doses of insulin on total glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and glucose storage in man. Diabetes, 1982. 31(11): p. 957-63.
11. Ferrannini, E., et al., The disposal of an oral glucose load in healthy subjects. A quantitative study. Diabetes, 1985. 34(6): p. 580-8.
12. Katz, L.D., et al., Splanchnic and peripheral disposal of oral glucose in man. Diabetes, 1983. 32(7): p. 675-9.
13. Defronzo, R.A., Banting Lecture. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, 2009. 58(4): p. 773-95.
14. Kalyani, R.R., et al., Glucose and insulin measurements from the oral glucose tolerance test and relationship to muscle mass. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2012. 67(1): p. 74-81.
15. Lazarus, R., D. Sparrow, and S.T. Weiss, Handgrip strength and insulin levels: cross-sectional and prospective associations in the Normative Aging Study. Metabolism, 1997. 46(11): p. 1266-9.
16. Barzilay, J.I., et al., Insulin resistance is associated with decreased quadriceps muscle strength in nondiabetic adults aged >or=70 years. Diabetes Care, 2009. 32(4): p. 736-8.
17. Sayer, A.A., et al., Type 2 diabetes, muscle strength, and impaired physical function: the tip of the iceberg? Diabetes Care, 2005. 28(10): p. 2541-2.
18. Lee, S.W., et al., Appendicular skeletal muscle mass and insulin resistance in an elderly korean population: the korean social life, health and aging project-health examination cohort. Diabetes Metab J, 2015. 39(1): p. 37-45.
19. Faerch, K., B. Bergman, and L. Perreault, Does insulin resistance drive the association between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk? PLoS One, 2012. 7(6): p. e39260.
20. Cohen, J.C. and R. Hickman, Insulin resistance and diminished glucose tolerance in powerlifters ingesting anabolic steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1987. 64(5): p. 960-3.
21. Atlantis, E., et al., Inverse associations between muscle mass, strength, and the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism, 2009. 58(7): p. 1013-22.
22. Park, B.S. and J.S. Yoon, Relative skeletal muscle mass is associated with development of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab J, 2013. 37(6): p. 458-64.
23. Bonora, E., et al., Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders: the Bruneck Study. Diabetes, 1998. 47(10): p. 1643-9.
24. Toth, P.P., D. Potter, and E.E. Ming, Prevalence of lipid abnormalities in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. J Clin Lipidol, 2012. 6(4): p. 325-30.
25. Reaven, G.M., Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes, 1988. 37(12): p. 1595-607.
26. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2015: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care, 2015. 38 Suppl: p. S4.
27. Hollenbeck, C. and G.M. Reaven, Variations in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1987. 64(6): p. 1169-73.
28. Laakso, M., et al., Asymptomatic atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb, 1991. 11(4): p. 1068-76.
29. Golay, A., Y.D. Chen, and G.M. Reaven, Effect of differences in glucose tolerance on insulin's ability to regulate carbohydrate and free fatty acid metabolism in obese individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1986. 62(6): p. 1081-8.
30. Facchini, F.S., et al., Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(8): p. 3574-8.
31. Ginsberg, H.N., Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest, 2000. 106(4): p. 453-8.
32. DeFronzo, R.A., Insulin resistance: a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Neth J Med, 1997. 50(5): p. 191-7.
33. Reaven, G., Insulin resistance and coronary heart disease in nondiabetic individuals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2012. 32(8): p. 1754-9.
34. Preuss, H.G., Effects of glucose/insulin perturbations on aging and chronic disorders of aging: the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr, 1997. 16(5): p. 397-403.
35. Gast, K.B., et al., Insulin resistance and risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults without diabetes: meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2012. 7(12): p. e52036.
36. Mercurio, V., et al., Insulin resistance: Is it time for primary prevention? World J Cardiol, 2012. 4(1): p. 1-7.
37. Kim, J.A., et al., Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Circulation, 2006. 113(15): p. 1888-904.
38. Bhat, S.L., et al., Beyond fasting plasma glucose: the association between coronary heart disease risk and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, nondiabetic adults. Metabolism, 2013. 62(9): p. 1223-6.
39. Pansuria, M., et al., Insulin resistance, metabolic stress, and atherosclerosis. Front Biosci (Schol Ed), 2012. 4: p. 916-31.
40. Barr, E.L., et al., Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Circulation, 2007. 116(2): p. 151-7.
41. Rader, D.J., Effect of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and intra-abdominal adiposity on the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med, 2007. 120(3 Suppl 1): p. S12-8.
42. Laakso, M. and J. Kuusisto, Insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in cardiovascular disease development. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2014. 10(5): p. 293-302.
43. Avogaro, A., et al., The endothelium abridges insulin resistance to premature aging. J Am Heart Assoc, 2013. 2(3): p. e000262.
44. Avogaro, A., S.V. de Kreutzenberg, and G.P. Fadini, Insulin signaling and life span. Pflugers Arch, 2010. 459(2): p. 301-14.
45. Rosenbloom, A.L., et al., Progeria: insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. J Pediatr, 1983. 102(3): p. 400-2.
46. Gardner, J.P., et al., Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition. Circulation, 2005. 111(17): p. 2171-7.
47. Li, Q., et al., Induction of vascular insulin resistance and endothelin-1 expression and acceleration of atherosclerosis by the overexpression of protein kinase C-beta isoform in the endothelium. Circ Res, 2013. 113(4): p. 418-27.
48. Rask-Madsen, C., et al., Loss of insulin signaling in vascular endothelial cells accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. Cell Metab, 2010. 11(5): p. 379-89.
49. Kashyap, S.R. and R.A. Defronzo, The insulin resistance syndrome: physiological considerations. Diab Vasc Dis Res, 2007. 4(1): p. 13-9.
50. DeFronzo, R.A., Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary artery disease: a complex metabolic web. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 1992. 20 Suppl 11: p. S1-16.
51. Zeng, G. and M.J. Quon, Insulin-stimulated production of nitric oxide is inhibited by wortmannin. Direct measurement in vascular endothelial cells. J Clin Invest, 1996. 98(4): p. 894-8.
52. Duckles, S.P. and V.M. Miller, Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production. Pflugers Arch, 2010. 459(6): p. 841-51.
53. Steinberg, H.O. and A.D. Baron, Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids. Diabetologia, 2002. 45(5): p. 623-34.
54. Du, X., et al., Insulin resistance reduces arterial prostacyclin synthase and eNOS activities by increasing endothelial fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest, 2006. 116(4): p. 1071-80.
55. Hsueh, W.A. and M.J. Quinones, Role of endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistance. Am J Cardiol, 2003. 92(4A): p. 10J-17J.
56. Quinones, M.J., S.B. Nicholas, and C.J. Lyon, Insulin resistance and the endothelium. Curr Diab Rep, 2005. 5(4): p. 246-53.
57. Guay, A.T., ED2: erectile dysfunction = endothelial dysfunction. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2007. 36(2): p. 453-63.
58. Potenza, M.A. and M. Montagnani, Abnormal insulin signaling: early detection of silent coronary artery disease-erectile dysfunction? Curr Pharm Des, 2008. 14(35): p. 3737-48.
59. Kirby, M., G. Jackson, and U. Simonsen, Endothelial dysfunction links erectile dysfunction to heart disease. Int J Clin Pract, 2005. 59(2): p. 225-9.
60. Guillet, C. and Y. Boirie, Insulin resistance: a contributing factor to age-related muscle mass loss? Diabetes Metab, 2005. 31 Spec No 2: p. 5S20-5S26.
61. Kalyani, R.R., M. Corriere, and L. Ferrucci, Age-related and disease-related muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2014. 2(10): p. 819-29.
62. Burd, N.A., S.H. Gorissen, and L.J. van Loon, Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 2013. 41(3): p. 169-73.
63. Churchward-Venne, T.A., L. Breen, and S.M. Phillips, Alterations in human muscle protein metabolism with aging: Protein and exercise as countermeasures to offset sarcopenia. Biofactors, 2014. 40(2): p. 199-205.
64. Dickinson, J.M., E. Volpi, and B.B. Rasmussen, Exercise and nutrition to target protein synthesis impairments in aging skeletal muscle. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 2013. 41(4): p. 216-23.
65. Murton, A.J., Muscle protein turnover in the elderly and its potential contribution to the development of sarcopenia. Proc Nutr Soc, 2015: p. 1-10.
66. Solomon, T.P., et al., Progressive hyperglycemia across the glucose tolerance continuum in older obese adults is related to skeletal muscle capillarization and nitric oxide bioavailability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011. 96(5): p. 1377-84.
67. Anderson, R.N. and B.L. Smith, Deaths: leading causes for 2002. National Vital Statistics reports. . 2005, National Center for Health Statistics, 2005. (No. 17.).
68. Zamora, E., A. Galan, and R. Simo, [Role of myostatin in wasting syndrome associated with chronic diseases]. Med Clin (Barc), 2008. 131(15): p. 585-90.
69. Kung, T., et al., Cachexia in heart disease: highlights from the ESC 2010. J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle, 2011. 2(1): p. 63-69.
70. Lenk, K., et al., Exercise training leads to a reduction of elevated myostatin levels in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 2011.
71. Bamman, M.M., Regulation of muscle size in humans: role of myostatin? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 2008. 8(4): p. 342-3.
72. Burton, L.A. and D. Sumukadas, Optimal management of sarcopenia. Clin Interv Aging, 2010. 5: p. 217-28.
73. Evans, W.J., What is sarcopenia? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1995. 50 Spec No: p. 5-8.
74. Rolland, Y., et al., Treatment strategies for sarcopenia and frailty. Med Clin North Am, 2011. 95(3): p. 427-38, ix.
75. Waters, D.L., et al., Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update. Clin Interv Aging, 2010. 5: p. 259-70.
76. Fearon, K., W.J. Evans, and S.D. Anker, Myopenia-a new universal term for muscle wasting. J Cachex Sarcopenia Muscle, 2011. 2(1): p. 1-3.
77. Frost, H.M., On our age-related bone loss: insights from a new paradigm. J Bone Miner Res, 1997. 12(10): p. 1539-46.
78. Ducher, G., et al., Effects of long-term tennis playing on the muscle-bone relationship in the dominant and nondominant forearms. Can J Appl Physiol, 2005. 30(1): p. 3-17.
79. Pang, M.Y. and J.J. Eng, Muscle strength is a determinant of bone mineral content in the hemiparetic upper extremity: implications for stroke rehabilitation. Bone, 2005. 37(1): p. 103-11.
80. Szulc, P., et al., Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with poor structural parameters of bone and impaired balance in elderly men--the MINOS study. J Bone Miner Res, 2005. 20(5): p. 721-9.
81. Hansen, E., et al., Insulin sensitivity after maximal and endurance resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 2012. 26(2): p. 327-34.
82. Black, L.E., P.D. Swan, and B.A. Alvar, Effects of intensity and volume on insulin sensitivity during acute bouts of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 2010. 24(4): p. 1109-16.
83. Melov, S., et al., Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLoS One, 2007. 2(5): p. e465.
84. Garatachea, N., et al., Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Res, 2015. 18(1): p. 57-89.
85. Peterson, M.D., A. Sen, and P.M. Gordon, Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2011. 43(2): p. 249-58.
86. Hurley, B.F., E.D. Hanson, and A.K. Sheaff, Strength training as a countermeasure to aging muscle and chronic disease. Sports Med, 2011. 41(4): p. 289-306.
87. Tresierras, M.A. and G.J. Balady, Resistance training in the treatment of diabetes and obesity: mechanisms and outcomes. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev, 2009. 29(2): p. 67-75.
88. Boyle, P.A., et al., Association of muscle strength with the risk of Alzheimer disease and the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol, 2009. 66(11): p. 1339-44.
89. Srikanthan, P. and A.S. Karlamangla, Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults. Am J Med, 2014. 127(6): p. 547-53.
90. Wannamethee, S.G., et al., Decreased muscle mass and increased central adiposity are independently related to mortality in older men. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007. 86(5): p. 1339-46.
91. Bigaard, J., et al., Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality. Obes Res, 2004. 12(7): p. 1042-9.
92. Chuang, S.Y., et al., Skeletal muscle mass and risk of death in an elderly population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2014. 24(7): p. 784-91.
93. Metter, E.J., et al., Skeletal muscle strength as a predictor of all-cause mortality in healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2002. 57(10): p. B359-65.
Medical Writer & Nutritionist
University of Stockholm & Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Baylor University, TX, USA
Latest from Monica
- Hematocrit (blood thickness) elevation following testosterone therapy – does it increase risk of blood clots?
- Is there a protective role of testosterone against high-grade prostate cancer?
- Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat, lean mass, symptoms and leptin resistance in obese men on a calorie-restricted diet
- Long-Term Testosterone Therapy Improves Cardiometabolic Function and Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Real-Life Results
- Exercise – much more than just a calorie burning tool
- 8 Diet Foods that Can Make You Gain Weight
- Effects of long-term testosterone treatment on weight loss and waist size in obese men - is TRT the next obesity treatment?
- Effects of Testosterone Therapy for 3 Years on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Progression in Older Men
- Red Meat - Good or Bad for Fat Loss?
- Is Testosterone Replacement Therapy a Lifelong Treatment?