Ignore the new 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines!
On January 7th 2016, the new 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans were released. One would expect this to be a state-of-the art document with practical hands-on advice that will help people make better food choices and eat healthier. Not so! If you think the new 2015 Dietary Guidelines will tell you everything you need to know about what to eat and what not to eat, you will be greatly disappointed.
The few good things new 2015 Dietary Guidelines
Problems with the new 2015 Dietary Guidelines
Nutrient-dense foods… really?
What about salt (sodium) restriction?
Saturated fat – should we really limit our intakes?
Critical importance of food processing
Tell me which foods to eat and which to avoid!
Mounting scientific evidence suggests that current food classification in does not enable solid nutritional
Take home message
1. International Agency for Research on Cancer, W., IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat. Avaliable at http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr240_E.pdf Accessed January 8th, 2016. 2015.
2. Cordain, L., et al., Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 81(2): p. 341-54.
3. Cordain, L., Cereal grains: humanity's double-edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet, 1999. 84: p. 19-73.
4. de Punder, K. and L. Pruimboom, The dietary intake of wheat and other cereal grains and their role in inflammation. Nutrients, 2013. 5(3): p. 771-87.
5. Heaney, R.P., Making Sense of the Science of Sodium. Nutr Today, 2015. 50(2): p. 63-66.
6. Alderman, M.H., The science upon which to base dietary sodium policy. Adv Nutr, 2014. 5(6): p. 764-9.
7. DiNicolantonio, J.J. and S.C. Lucan, The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease. Open Heart, 2014. 1(1): p. e000167.
8. DiNicolantonio, J.J., J.H. O'Keefe, and S.C. Lucan, Population-wide sodium reduction: reasons to resist. Mayo Clin Proc, 2014. 89(3): p. 426-7.
9. DiNicolantonio, J.J., et al., Problems with the American Heart Association Presidential Advisory advocating sodium restriction. Am J Hypertens, 2013. 26(10): p. 1201-4.
10. DiNicolantonio, J.J., et al., Dietary sodium restriction: take it with a grain of salt. Am J Med, 2013. 126(11): p. 951-5.
11. Mente, A., M.J. O'Donnell, and S. Yusuf, The population risks of dietary salt excess are exaggerated. Can J Cardiol, 2014. 30(5): p. 507-12.
12. McCarron, D.A., What determines human sodium intake: policy or physiology? Adv Nutr, 2014. 5(5): p. 578-84.
13. O'Donnell, M., et al., Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med, 2014. 371(7): p. 612-23.
14. O'Donnell, M.J., et al., Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. JAMA, 2011. 306(20): p. 2229-38.
15. Chowdhury, R., et al., Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med, 2014. 160(6): p. 398-406.
16. Siri-Tarino, P.W., et al., Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr, 2010. 91(3): p. 535-46.
17. Remig, V., et al., Trans fats in America: a review of their use, consumption, health implications, and regulation. J Am Diet Assoc, 2010. 110(4): p. 585-92.
18. Ramsden, C.E., et al., n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr, 2010. 104(11): p. 1586-600.
19. Ramsden, C.E., et al., Don't disregard the essential distinction between PUFA species. Br J Nutr, 2011. 106(6): p. 953-7.
20. de Souza, R.J., et al., Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ, 2015. 351: p. h3978.
21. Siri-Tarino, P.W., et al., Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. Curr Atheroscler Rep, 2010. 12(6): p. 384-90.
22. Kuipers, R.S., et al., Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease. Neth J Med, 2011. 69(9): p. 372-8.
23. Micha, R. and D. Mozaffarian, Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids, 2010. 45(10): p. 893-905.
24. de Oliveira Otto, M.C., et al., Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr, 2012. 96(2): p. 397-404.
25. O'Sullivan, T.A., et al., Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health, 2013. 103(9): p. e31-42.
26. Luiten, C.M., et al., Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets. Public Health Nutr, 2015: p. 1-9.
27. Costa Louzada, M.L., et al., Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica, 2015. 49: p. 38.
28. Monteiro, C.A., et al., Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr, 2011. 14(1): p. 5-13.
29. Louzada, M.L., et al., Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet. Rev Saude Publica, 2015. 49: p. 45.
30. Moubarac, J.C., et al., Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public Health Nutr, 2013. 16(12): p. 2240-8.
31. Louzada, M.L., et al., Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med, 2015. 81: p. 9-15.
32. Canella, D.S., et al., Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009). PLoS One, 2014. 9(3): p. e92752.
33. Juul, F. and E. Hemmingsson, Trends in consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Sweden between 1960 and 2010. Public Health Nutr, 2015. 18(17): p. 3096-107.
34. Monteiro, C.A., The Present Role of Industrial Food Processing in Food Systems and Its Implications for Controlling the Obesity Pandemic. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2015. 61 Suppl: p. S203.
35. Tavares, L.F., et al., Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian Family Doctor Program. Public Health Nutr, 2012. 15(1): p. 82-7.
36. Moreira, P.V., et al., Comparing different policy scenarios to reduce the consumption of ultra-processed foods in UK: impact on cardiovascular disease mortality using a modelling approach. PLoS One, 2015. 10(2): p. e0118353.
37. Monteiro, C.A., et al., Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev, 2013. 14 Suppl 2: p. 21-8.
38. Moubarac, J.C., et al., Processed and ultra-processed food products: consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011. Can J Diet Pract Res, 2014. 75(1): p. 15-21.
39. Solberg, S.L., L. Terragni, and S.I. Granheim, Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers. Public Health Nutr, 2015: p. 1-12.
40. Poti, J.M., et al., Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households? Am J Clin Nutr, 2015. 101(6): p. 1251-62.
41. McNamara, D.J., The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg. Nutrients, 2015. 7(10): p. 8716-22.
42. Fardet, A., et al., Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing. Adv Nutr, 2015. 6(6): p. 629-38.
43. Moubarac, J.C., et al., Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment. Curr Obes Rep, 2014. 3(2): p. 256-72.
44. Monteiro, C.A., et al., A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Cad Saude Publica, 2010. 26(11): p. 2039-49.