Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis-related fractures were collected for men ages 45-74 from six national databases and large cross-sectional studies. Relative risk (RR) rates were determined for these medical conditions in patients with testosterone levels below 300 ng/dL. The prevalence of TD was determined for this cohort of men. 


Actual and adjusted (normalized for testosterone deficiency) rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis-related fractures in U.S. men aged 45-74, were calculated. 

It was determined that, over a 20-year period, testosterone deficiency is projected to be involved in the development of approximately 1.3 million new cases of cardiovascular disease, 1.1 million new cases of diabetes, and over 600,000 osteoporosis-related fractures.

In year 1, the attributed cost burden of these diseases was approximately $8.4 billion.

Over the entire 20-year period, testosterone deficiency may be directly responsible for approximately $190-$525 billion in inflation-adjusted U.S. health care expenditures. 

Testosterone deficiency was implicated in almost 1 million deaths and approximately 3 million cases of cardio-metabolic diseases over a 20-year period. 


More and more research is emerging showing that testosterone deficiency may be a significant contributor to adverse public health. This study clearly demonstrates that testosterone deficiency imposes a substantial public health burden on the U.S. health care system.[12]

These findings suggest that management of sub-optimal testosterone levels in middle-aged and elderly men is an appropriate consideration for the prevention of several significant chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis-related fractures.

Treatment of sub-optimal testosterone levels would not only realize substantial health care cost savings, but, but would also confer invaluable relief from suffering on a personal level in affected men.[13-16]



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