Methods and Study Design:

Prospective cohort study with a 4.5-year follow-up period.

From a representative sample of German primary care practices, 2914 female patients between 18 and 75 years were analyzed for the main outcome measures: cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause mortality.


At baseline, the study population was aged 57.96 +/- 14.37 years with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.71 +/- 5.17 kg/m2.

No predictive value of total testosterone for incident cardiovascular risk factors or cardiovascular diseases was observed.

However, women with the lowest total testosterone levels, 16 ng/dl or below, had a higher risk to die of any cause or to develop a cardiovascular event within the follow-up period compared to women with higher total testosterone levels of 29-143 ng/dl.

More specifically, compared to women with the lowest total testosterone levels, higher levels (29-143 ng/dl vs. 16 ng/dl) was associated with a 38-51% lower risk of all-cause mortality and a 46% lower risk of cardiovascular events.


Low baseline testosterone in women is associated with increased all-cause mortality and incident CV events independent of traditional risk factors.


Low testosterone levels predict all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in women: a prospective cohort study in German primary care patients.
Sievers C, Klotsche J, Pieper L, Schneider HJ, März W, Wittchen HU, Stalla GK, Mantzoros C.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Oct;163(4):699-708