What is known
Why "andropause" should NOT be seen as equivalent to menopause
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3. Blumel, J.E., et al., Is the Androgen Deficiency of Aging Men (ADAM) questionnaire useful for the screening of partial androgenic deficiency of aging men? Maturitas, 2009. 63(4): p. 365-8.
4. Wang, C., et al., Investigation, treatment, and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism in males: ISA, ISSAM, EAU, EAA, and ASA recommendations. J Androl, 2009. 30(1): p. 1-9.
5. Wu, F.C., et al., Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men. N Engl J Med, 2010. 363(2): p. 123-35.
6. Varner, J.M., MANopause (andropause). Ala Nurse, 2013. 40(1): p. 7-8; quiz 9.
7. Morales, A., J.P. Heaton, and C.C. Carson, 3rd, Andropause: a misnomer for a true clinical entity. J Urol, 2000. 163(3): p. 705-12.
8. Saad, F. and L.J. Gooren, Late onset hypogonadism of men is not equivalent to the menopause. Maturitas, 2014.
9. Dennerstein, L., Well-being, symptoms and the menopausal transition. Maturitas, 1996. 23(2): p. 147-57.
10. Kelleher, S., A.J. Conway, and D.J. Handelsman, Blood testosterone threshold for androgen deficiency symptoms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004. 89(8): p. 3813-7.
11. Zarotsky, V. and e. al, Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males. Journal of Hormones, 2014. Volume 2014, Article ID 190347.
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13. Haring, R., et al., Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of testosterone deficiency in a population-based cohort of men: results from the study of health in Pomerania. Aging Male, 2010. 13(4): p. 247-57.
14. Gold, E.B., et al., Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN. Am J Epidemiol, 2013. 178(1): p. 70-83.
15. Tajar, A., et al., Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95(4): p. 1810-8.
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18. Ferrini, R.L. and E. Barrett-Connor, Sex hormones and age: a cross-sectional study of testosterone and estradiol and their bioavailable fractions in community-dwelling men. Am J Epidemiol, 1998. 147(8): p. 750-4.
19. Gray, A., et al., Age, disease, and changing sex hormone levels in middle-aged men: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1991. 73(5): p. 1016-25.
20. Leifke, E., et al., Age-related changes of serum sex hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex-hormone binding globulin levels in men: cross-sectional data from a healthy male cohort. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2000. 53(6): p. 689-95.
21. Simon, D., et al., The influence of aging on plasma sex hormones in men: the Telecom Study. Am J Epidemiol, 1992. 135(7): p. 783-91.
22. Harman, S.M., et al., Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(2): p. 724-31.
23. Krithivas, K., et al., Evidence that the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene is associated with the age-related decline in serum androgen levels in men. J Endocrinol, 1999. 162(1): p. 137-42.
24. Morley, J.E., et al., Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism, 1997. 46(4): p. 410-3.
25. Zmuda, J.M., et al., Longitudinal relation between endogenous testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged men. A 13-year follow-up of former Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial participants. Am J Epidemiol, 1997. 146(8): p. 609-17.
26. Neilson, H.K., S.M. Conroy, and C.M. Friedenreich, The Influence of Energetic Factors on Biomarkers of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk. Curr Nutr Rep, 2014. 3: p. 22-34.
27. Travis, R.C. and T.J. Key, Oestrogen exposure and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res, 2003. 5(5): p. 239-47.
28. Maggio, M., et al., Relationship between higher estradiol levels and 9-year mortality in older women: the Invecchiare in Chianti study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2009. 57(10): p. 1810-5.
29. Traish, A.M., Adverse health effects of testosterone deficiency (TD) in men. Steroids, 2014.
30. Jones, T.H., Testosterone deficiency: a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 21(8): p. 496-503.
31. Ullah, M.I., et al., Testosterone deficiency as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Horm Metab Res, 2011. 43(3): p. 153-64.
32. Haring, R., et al., Low testosterone concentrations in men contribute to the gender gap in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Gend Med, 2012. 9(6): p. 557-68.
33. Muraleedharan, V., et al., Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risk of mortality and testosterone replacement improves survival in men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol, 2013. 169(6): p. 725-33.
34. Isidori, A.M., et al., Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2005. 63(3): p. 280-93.
35. Oskui, M.P., et al., Testosterone and the cardiovascular system: a comprehensive review of the clinical literature. J Am Heart Assoc, 2013. 2(6): p. e000272.
36. Saad, F., et al., Testosterone as potential effective therapy in treatment of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency: a review. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2012. 8(2): p. 131-43.
37. Shores, M.M., et al., Testosterone treatment and mortality in men with low testosterone levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2012. 97(6): p. 2050-8.
38. Srinivas-Shankar, U., et al., Effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010. 95(2): p. 639-50.
39. Traish, A.M., Outcomes of testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency (TD): Part II. Steroids, 2014.
40. Francomano, D., et al., Effects of testosterone undecanoate replacement and withdrawal on cardio-metabolic, hormonal and body composition outcomes in severely obese hypogonadal men: a pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest, 2014.
41. Francomano, D., et al., Effects of 5-year treatment with testosterone undecanoate on lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men with hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome. Urology, 2014. 83(1): p. 167-73.
42. Francomano, D., A. Lenzi, and A. Aversa, Effects of five-year treatment with testosterone undecanoate on metabolic and hormonal parameters in ageing men with metabolic syndrome. Int J Endocrinol, 2014. 2014: p. 527470.
43. Hackett, G., et al., Testosterone replacement therapy with long-acting testosterone undecanoate improves sexual function and quality-of-life parameters vs. placebo in a population of men with type 2 diabetes. J Sex Med, 2013. 10(6): p. 1612-27.
44. Haider, A., et al., Hypogonadal obese men with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 lose weight and show improvement in cardiovascular risk factors when treated with testosterone: an observational study. . Obes Res Clin Pract 2013.
45. Haider, A., et al., Effects of Long-Term Testosterone Therapy on Patients with “Diabesity”: Results of Observational Studies of Pooled Analyses in Obese Hypogonadal Men with Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014: p. Article ID 683515.
46. Haider, A., et al., Effects of long-term testosterone therapy on patients with "diabesity": results of observational studies of pooled analyses in obese hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Int J Endocrinol, 2014. 2014: p. 683515.
47. Heufelder, A.E., et al., Fifty-two-week treatment with diet and exercise plus transdermal testosterone reverses the metabolic syndrome and improves glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and subnormal plasma testosterone. J Androl, 2009. 30(6): p. 726-33.
48. Saad, F., et al., Long-term treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone produces substantial and sustained weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2013. 21(10): p. 1975-81.
49. Yassin, A. and G. Doros, Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss. Clin Obes, 2013. 3(3-4): p. 73-83.
50. Yassin, D.J., et al., Long-term testosterone treatment in elderly men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction reduces obesity parameters and improves metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life. J Sex Med, 2014. 11(6): p. 1567-76.
51. Zitzmann, M., et al., IPASS: a study on the tolerability and effectiveness of injectable testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism in a worldwide sample of 1,438 men. J Sex Med, 2013. 10(2): p. 579-88.
52. Carson, C.C., 3rd and G. Rosano, Exogenous testosterone, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: a review of trial data. J Sex Med, 2012. 9(1): p. 54-67.
53. Thomson, J. and I. Oswald, Effect of oestrogen on the sleep, mood, and anxiety of menopausal women. Br Med J, 1977. 2(6098): p. 1317-9.
54. George, G.C., et al., Effect of exogenous oestrogens on minor psychiatric symptoms in postmenopausal women. S Afr Med J, 1973. 47(49): p. 2387-8.
55. Barnabei, V.M., et al., Menopausal symptoms and treatment-related effects of estrogen and progestin in the Women's Health Initiative. Obstet Gynecol, 2005. 105(5 Pt 1): p. 1063-73.
56. Ortmann, O. and C. Lattrich, The treatment of climacteric symptoms. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2012. 109(17): p. 316-23; quiz 324.
57. Marjoribanks, J., et al., Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 7: p. CD004143.
58. de Villiers, T.J., et al., Updated 2013 International Menopause Society recommendations on menopausal hormone therapy and preventive strategies for midlife health. Climacteric, 2013. 16(3): p. 316-37.
59. Saad, F., et al., Onset of effects of testosterone treatment and time span until maximum effects are achieved. Eur J Endocrinol, 2011. 165(5): p. 675-85.
60. Kelly, D.M. and T.H. Jones, Testosterone and cardiovascular risk in men. Front Horm Res, 2014. 43: p. 1-20.
61. Saad, F., Androgen therapy in men with testosterone deficiency: can testosterone reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2012. 28 Suppl 2: p. 52-9.
62. Traish, A.M., et al., Long-term testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men ameliorates elements of the metabolic syndrome: an observational, long-term registry study. Int J Clin Pract, 2014. 68(3): p. 314-29.
63. Haider, A., et al., Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years. Int J Endocrinol, 2014. 2014: p. 496948.
64. Hackett, G., et al., Testosterone replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes but not in men with coexisting depression: the BLAST study. J Sex Med, 2014. 11(3): p. 840-56.
65. Traish, A.M., et al., Long-term testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men ameliorates elements of the metabolic syndrome: an observational, long-term registry study. Int J Clin Pract, 2013.
66. Saad, F. and L.J. Gooren, The role of testosterone in the etiology and treatment of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2. J Obes, 2011. 2011.
67. Morales, A., The andropause: bare facts for urologists. BJU Int, 2003. 91(4): p. 311-3.
Medical Writer & Nutritionist
University of Stockholm & Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Baylor University, TX, USA
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