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Ageless Forever Anti-Aging News Blog
Monica

Monica

Medical Writer & Nutritionist

MSc Nutrition

University of Stockholm & Karolinska Institute, Sweden 

   Baylor University, TX, USA

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Exercise – much more than just a calorie burning tool

Exercise is commonly seen as a tool to burn off calories and stored body fat. While exercise has potential to greatly increase calorie burn off and fat burning, as seen in elite athletes [1], studies show that for most people who are struggling with fat loss, dieting – i.e. reducing caloric intake - results in a greater weight loss (or fat loss in some cases) than exercising.[2-5] Why?
 
The problem is not that exercise is ineffective, but that the prescribed exercise dose or adherence to the prescribed exercise dose, is poor.[4, 6] In most studies, the energy deficit produced by the prescribed exercise is far smaller than that usually produced by dietary restriction.[4] In contrast, in studies that carefully compared the effects of an equal energy deficit caused by either aerobic exercise versus caloric restriction, the effect on weight loss is similar.[7-10] In these studies, subjects achieved an identical daily energy deficit of 500-700 calories, created either by diet or by supervised daily exercise, for a 12-week period. Similar weight losses (approximately 6 kg in women and 8 kg in men) occurred in both the diet-only and exercise-only groups.[7, 8]
 
Unfortunately, adherence to exercise programs that daily burn 500-700 calories per session is low and over half end up dropping out after 16 months, despite getting paid for their time.[11, 12] But this does not mean that lower amounts of exercise are "worthless". Here I will tell you how regular exercising – even if your workouts don’t result in large calorie expenditures - helps you stay on the fitness track…
 

Testosterone treatment is NOT associated with risk of adverse cardiovascular events – the RHYME study

It is well-documented that testosterone therapy effectively restores testosterone levels in hypogonadal men and improves many health outcomes, such as quality of life [1-4], libido [4, 5], metabolic parameters [5-9] and body composition.[4, 5, 9, 10]
 
However, a few conflicting studies raised concerns about the cardiovascular safety of testosterone therapy [11, 12], which in 2015 prompted the FDA to issue warnings to physicians and patients about potential cardiovascular risks of testosterone therapy.
 
In contrast, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) acknowledged the flaws of the conflicting studies and concluded that there is no consistent evidence of harm associated with testosterone therapy, regardless of mode of delivery.[13]
 
Here I summarize the cardiovascular results of the notable RHYME (The Registry of Hypogonadism in Men) study, which contrary to prior clinical trials, enrolled men with a wide range of comorbid illnesses and cardiovascular risk factors.[14] The aim was to evaluate the safety of testosterone therapy in a sufficiently diverse population to reflect real-world, clinical experience.[14]
 
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