1 in 3 US adults aged 40-59 years has high blood pressure (hypertension); among those over 60 years of age the prevalence is over two-thirds, 67%. High blood pressure is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular disease; the leading cause of death worldwide.[1, 2] As two-thirds of sudden cardiac deaths occur in clinically healthy individuals , novel indicators of early recognition of adverse cardiometabolic risk in disease-free adults are clearly needed. It has been demonstrated that healthy disease-free adults with high-normal blood pressure (aka pre-hypertension, defined as 120-139/80-89 mmHg) have an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile.
The prevalence of high-normal blood pressure in disease-free US adults is 36.3%; it is especially common in people with overweight/obesity, enlarged waist lines, and elevated glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (glycated glucose), C-reactive protein (an inflammatory marker), and triglycerides (blood fats).
High-normal blood pressure is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...[3-5]
A study in a large primary care patient population shows that low baseline testosterone in women aged 43-72 years is associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. This association was found to be largely independent of traditional risk factors, and supports the notion that the hormonal status in middle age and older women might impact morality outcomes.
The objective of the study was to determine whether baseline testosterone levels in women are associated with future overall or cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.