History behind common beliefs of testosterone in women
Testosterone production and circulating levels in women
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11 - 59
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Physiological importance of testosterone in women
History of testosterone therapy in women
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7. Horton, R., J. Shinsako, and P.H. Forsham, Testosterone Production and Metabolic Clearance Rates with Volumes of Distribution in Normal Adult Men and Women. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh), 1965. 48: p. 446-58.
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20. Westberg, L., et al., Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(6): p. 2562-8.
21. Sawaya, M.E. and A.R. Shalita, Androgen receptor polymorphisms (CAG repeat lengths) in androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, and acne. J Cutan Med Surg, 1998. 3(1): p. 9-15.
22. Crabbe, P., et al., Part of the interindividual variation in serum testosterone levels in healthy men reflects differences in androgen sensitivity and feedback set point: contribution of the androgen receptor polyglutamine tract polymorphism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 92(9): p. 3604-10.
23. Lapauw, B., et al., Is the effect of testosterone on body composition modulated by the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in elderly men? Eur J Endocrinol, 2007. 156(3): p. 395-401.
24. Liu, C.C., et al., The impact of androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism on andropausal symptoms in different serum testosterone levels. J Sex Med, 2012. 9(9): p. 2429-37.
25. Stanworth, R.D., et al., Dyslipidaemia is associated with testosterone, oestradiol and androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism in men with type 2 diabetes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2011. 74(5): p. 624-30.
26. Campbell, B.C., et al., Androgen receptor CAG repeats and body composition among Ariaal men. Int J Androl, 2009. 32(2): p. 140-8.
27. Simanainen, U., et al., Length of the human androgen receptor glutamine tract determines androgen sensitivity in vivo. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2011. 342(1-2): p. 81-6.
28. Holm, A.C., et al., Change in testosterone concentrations over time is a better predictor than the actual concentrations for symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Aging Male, 2011. 14(4): p. 249-56.
29. Wilson, C.M. and M.J. McPhaul, A and B forms of the androgen receptor are expressed in a variety of human tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 1996. 120(1): p. 51-7.
30. McEwen, B.S., Neural gonadal steroid actions. Science, 1981. 211(4488): p. 1303-11.
31. Colvard, D.S., et al., Identification of androgen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1989. 86(3): p. 854-7.
32. Notelovitz, M., Androgen effects on bone and muscle. Fertil Steril, 2002. 77 Suppl 4: p. S34-41.
33. Willoughby, D.S. and L. Taylor, Effects of sequential bouts of resistance exercise on androgen receptor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2004. 36(9): p. 1499-506.
34. Chadha, S., et al., Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long-term androgen-treated transsexual women. Hum Pathol, 1994. 25(11): p. 1198-204.
35. Chang, C., et al., Androgen receptor (AR) physiological roles in male and female reproductive systems: lessons learned from AR-knockout mice lacking AR in selective cells. Biol Reprod, 2013. 89(1): p. 21.
36. Traish, A.M., et al., Role of androgens in female genital sexual arousal: receptor expression, structure, and function. Fertil Steril, 2002. 77 Suppl 4: p. S11-8.
37. Parker, W.H., et al., Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 2007. 50(2): p. 354-61.
38. Parker, W.H., et al., Effect of bilateral oophorectomy on women's long-term health. Womens Health (Lond Engl), 2009. 5(5): p. 565-76.
39. Jacoby, V.L., et al., Oophorectomy vs ovarian conservation with hysterectomy: cardiovascular disease, hip fracture, and cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Arch Intern Med, 2011. 171(8): p. 760-8.
40. Hickey, M., M. Ambekar, and I. Hammond, Should the ovaries be removed or retained at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease? Hum Reprod Update, 2010. 16(2): p. 131-41.
41. Erekson, E.A., D.K. Martin, and E.S. Ratner, Oophorectomy: the debate between ovarian conservation and elective oophorectomy. Menopause, 2013. 20(1): p. 110-4.
42. Shuster, L.T., et al., Prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women and long-term health. Menopause Int, 2008. 14(3): p. 111-6.
43. Rivera, C.M., et al., Increased cardiovascular mortality after early bilateral oophorectomy. Menopause, 2009. 16(1): p. 15-23.
44. Kritz-Silverstein, D., E. Barrett-Connor, and D.L. Wingard, Hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and heart disease risk factors in older women. Am J Public Health, 1997. 87(4): p. 676-80.
45. Barrett-Connor, E., Menopause, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2013. 13(2): p. 186-91.
46. Finch, A., et al., The impact of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy on menopausal symptoms and sexual function in women who carry a BRCA mutation. Gynecol Oncol, 2011. 121(1): p. 163-8.
47. Celik, H., et al., The effect of hysterectomy and bilaterally salpingo-oophorectomy on sexual function in post-menopausal women. Maturitas, 2008. 61(4): p. 358-63.
48. Shifren, J.L., Androgen deficiency in the oophorectomized woman. Fertil Steril, 2002. 77 Suppl 4: p. S60-2.
49. Salmon, U.J., Effect of testosterone propionate upon gonadotropic hormone excretion and vaginal smears of human female castrate. . Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 1937. 37(3): p. 488–91.
50. Shorr, E., ., G.N. Papanicolaou, and B.F. Stimmel, Neutralization of ovarian follicular hormone in women by simultaneous administration of male sex hormone. Proc Soc Exp Bio Med, 1938. 38: p. 759–62.
51. Loeser, A.A., The action of testosterone propionate on the uterus and breast. Lancet Infect Dis, 1938. 1: p. 373–4.
52. Berlind, M., Oral administration of methyl testosterone in gynecology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1941: p. 986–91.
53. Salmon, U.J., Rational for androgen therapy in gynecology. J Clin Endocrinol, 1941. 1: p. 162–79.
54. Salmon, U.J. and S.H. Geist, Effect of androgens upon libido in women. J Clin Endocrinol, 1943. 3: p. 235–8.
55. Loeser, A.A., Subcutaneous Implantation of Female and Male Hormone in Tablet Form in Women. Br Med J, 1940. 1(4133): p. 479-82.
56. Greenblatt, R.B., F. Mortara, and R. Torpin, Sexual libido in the female. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1942. 44: p. 658–63.
Medical Writer & Nutritionist
MSc in Nutrition
University of Stockholm & Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Baylor University, TX, USA
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